Shepherding Legal Definition

She­pher­ding is a tac­tic and skill in Aus­tra­li­an rules foot­ball, a team sport. The she­p­herd is the act of legal­ly pushing, pushing or blo­cking an oppo­sing play­er to take pos­ses­si­on of the ball or reach the com­pe­ti­ti­on. The term comes from the word she­p­herd, someone who influen­ces the move­ment of sheep in a pen. Thanks to the she­p­herd, Aus­tra­li­an rules foot­ball play­ers can influence the move­ment of their oppon­ents. The pre­va­lence of the she­p­herd is distinc­ti­ve in Aus­tra­li­an rules foot­ball, as it is a form of ille­gal gambling in many other foot­ball codes whe­re it is sub­ject to obs­truc­tion rules. In foot­ball, it‘s total­ly for­bidden. Even the codes of rug­by uni­on and ice hockey, which only allow such cont­act with a play­er in pos­ses­si­on of the ball, as well as Gae­lic foot­ball. Howe­ver, the con­cept of she­p­herd is very simi­lar to blo­cking in Ame­ri­can foot­ball. Under the laws of Aus­tra­li­an rules foot­ball, a play­er can pro­tect an oppo­sing play­er if the ball is within five met­res, except in com­pe­ti­ti­ons whe­re play­ers fight the ball in the air, i.e. score com­pe­ti­ti­ons and jerk com­pe­ti­ti­ons, or when the ball is not in play. No she­p­herds are allo­wed in mar­king and jer­king competitions.

Play­ers can­not make cont­act up or down or hold their oppon­ents during a she­p­herd. Free kicks should result from one of the­se vio­la­ti­ons. Nevert­hel­ess, the­re have been a num­ber of inci­dents in the Aus­tra­li­an Pro­fes­sio­nal Foot­ball League that have spark­ed con­tro­ver­sy and resul­ted in stric­ter enforce­ment of the gui­ding rules behind the game. A term used in the legal pro­fes­si­on to descri­be the pro­cess of using a cita­ti­on to dis­co­ver the histo­ry of case law or sta­tu­te to deter­mi­ne whe­ther it is still good law. Thank you, dear Father, for coming today and lea­ding me in faith. I want to thank my beau­tiful wife who loved me for all she has, I pray that the Lord will have mer­cy on all of us and that the Lord will have mer­cy on me. Shepard‘s Cita­ti­ons is a cita­ti­on used in legal rese­arch in the United Sta­tes that con­ta­ins a list of all orga­niza­ti­ons citing a par­ti­cu­lar case, law, or other legal aut­ho­ri­ty. [1] The verb She­par­di­zing (some­ti­mes lower­ca­se) refers to Shepard‘s con­sul­ta­ti­on pro­cess to see if a case has been over­tur­ned, con­firm­ed, ques­tio­ned, or cited by sub­se­quent cases.

[1] Pri­or to the deve­lo­p­ment of elec­tro­nic quo­ters such as Westlaw‘s Key­Ci­te in the 1990s, Shepard‘s was the only legal cita­ti­on ser­vice attemp­ting to pro­vi­de com­pre­hen­si­ve covera­ge of the United Sta­tes. Law. [1] Shepard‘s in paper form con­sists of long tables of cita­ti­ons (wit­hout full titles) pre­ce­ded by codes pre­ce­ded by one or two let­ters indi­ca­ting their rela­ti­onship to the case being annul­led. [8] [9] Befo­re com­pu­ter-aided legal rese­arch beca­me wide­ly available, gene­ra­ti­ons of lawy­ers (and trai­nee lawy­ers and assistants) had to manu­al­ly loca­te the She­pard ent­ry for a case, deci­pher all cryp­tic abbre­via­ti­ons, and then manu­al­ly retrie­ve all the cases flag­ged by She­pard as cri­ti­cal or rejec­ted in a par­ti­cu­lar case to deter­mi­ne whe­ther sub­se­quent cases were direct­ly rela­ted to the invol­vement. Spe­ci­fic of inte­rest for the had put in mino­ri­ty their own cus­to­mers. [1] In many juris­dic­tions in the United Sta­tes, it is still pos­si­ble to cite a case as a good right, even if it has been set asi­de as long as it has been set asi­de for ano­ther hol­ding com­pa­ny and not for the spe­ci­fic hol­ding com­pa­ny for which it is cited. The name deri­ves from a legal ser­vice begun in 1873 by Frank She­pard (1848–1902), when She­pard began publi­shing the­se lists in a series of inde­xed books in various juris­dic­tions. [1] The pro­duct was ori­gi­nal­ly cal­led Shepard‘s Adhe­si­ve Anno­ta­ti­ons. The quo­ta­ti­ons were prin­ted on rub­be­ri­zed and per­fo­ra­ted sheets that could be divi­ded and pas­ted to the pages of case law.

Known as “sti­ckers,” they were lite­ral­ly torn into pie­ces and glued to the rele­vant edges by case repor­ters. Final­ly, the online report has the con­ve­ni­ence of allo­wing the user to sim­ply click on the hyper­link for each case lis­ted to retrie­ve it almost instant­ly (if it is in the user‘s access plan), while users of Shepard‘s print ver­si­on had to rush through long cor­ri­dors of the law libra­ry to retrie­ve hea­vy volu­mes of legal jour­na­lists. one for each case (and then someone had to hand over all the­se volu­mes). We are very uni­form in our covera­ge of the sky and can find all kinds of orbits, but we only seem to find objects with simi­lar types of orbits that are on the same side of the sky, sug­gest­ing that some­thing is taking them into the­se simi­lar types of orbits that we belie­ve to be Pla­net X. what makes this result real­ly inte­res­t­ing is that Pla­net X 2015 seems to affect TG387 in the same way as all other extre­me­ly distant objects in the solar sys­tem. The­se simu­la­ti­ons don‘t pro­ve that the­re is ano­ther mas­si­ve pla­net in our solar sys­tem, but they are fur­ther evi­dence that the­re could be some­thing big out the­re. In the ear­ly 20th cen­tu­ry, the Frank She­pard Com­pa­ny bound quo­ta­ti­ons to brown volu­mes with Shepard‘s gold quo­ta­ti­ons on the back, simi­lar to tho­se still found on libra­ry shel­ves. [2] While most cita­ti­ons can be published online, some sources are only available in Shepard‘s Cita­ti­ons print volumes.

The most pro­mi­nent of the­se are the unco­di­fied laws of the United Sta­tes in gene­ral, which are cover­ed in the print publi­ca­ti­on Shepard‘s Fede­ral Sta­tu­te Cita­ti­ons, but are not dis­posable online. The­re are other more spe­cia­li­zed sources that are not as wide­ly available as the Sta­tu­tes at Lar­ge included in Shepard‘s Cita­ti­ons print publi­ca­ti­ons, but are not included in the online ser­vice. In March 1999, Lexis­Ne­xis published an online ver­si­on cal­led Shepard‘s Cita­ti­on Ser­vice. [7] Alt­hough print ver­si­ons of Shepard‘s con­ti­nue to be used, their use is decli­ning. While lear­ning She­par­di­ze on paper was once a rite of pas­sa­ge for all first-year law students,[2] Shepard‘s paper-based quo­te book­lets are cryp­tic com­pared to the online ver­si­on, as so much infor­ma­ti­on about so many cases has to be crammed into as litt­le space as pos­si­ble. Under Wil­liam Gut­hrie Packard‘s lea­der­ship, the com­pa­ny over­ca­me the Gre­at Depres­si­on and con­tin­ued to grow.[1] In 1948, he moved to Colo­ra­do Springs; In 1951, it adopted the name Shepard‘s Cita­ti­ons, Inc.[3] In 1966, Shepard‘s Cita­ti­ons was acqui­red by McGraw Hill. [4] Shepard‘s account shows exact­ly how later cases cited the case, which was pro­vi­ded with simp­le Eng­lish phra­ses such as “fol­lo­wed by” or “out­vo­ted” ins­tead of using the old abbre­via­ti­ons. [1] In addi­ti­on, the report includes the full title of the case (i.e., the names of the plain­ti­ff and respon­dent) and the full cita­ti­on for each sub­se­quent case. This is important becau­se lawy­ers can usual­ly distin­gu­ish cri­mi­nal from civil cases by loo­king at the title.