Nose Definition and Function

During chewing, food relea­ses cer­tain che­mi­cals that enter the nose and acti­va­te olfac­to­ry recep­tors in the nose. They work in coor­di­na­ti­on with the tas­te buds to iden­ti­fy the actu­al tas­te of the food. Late­ral wall of the nasal cavi­ty with the loca­ti­on of the nasal tur­bi­na­tes and their con­ti­nua­tion with the ves­ti­bu­le An oval bony cham­ber of the inner ear, part of the bony laby­rinth. It is con­ti­nuous with the ante­rior bony coch­lea and semicir­cu­lar pos­te­rior ducts. The ves­ti­bu­le con­tains two com­mu­ni­ca­ting bags (utri­cles and sac­cu­les) of the balan­cing appa­ra­tus. The oval win­dow on its side wall is occu­p­ied by the base of the midd­le ear stir­rups. Ear: ante­rior ana­to­my and nasopha­ryn­ge­al nasopha­rynx The upper part of the pha­rynx is behind the nose and abo­ve the soft pala­te. The nasopha­rynx is the pos­te­rior exten­si­on of the nasal cavi­ties and has a respi­ra­to­ry func­tion. Pha­rynx: pos­te­rior ana­to­my After ten weeks, the cells dif­fe­ren­tia­te into mus­cle, car­ti­la­ge and bone.

Pro­blems at this sta­ge of deve­lo­p­ment can cau­se birth defects such as cho­anal atre­sia (mis­sing or clo­sed pas­sa­ge), facial cleft and nasal dys­pla­sia (defec­ti­ve or incom­ple­te development)[49] or, extre­me­ly rare­ly, polyrrhi­nia, the for­ma­ti­on of a dou­ble nose. [50] Sche­ma­tic repre­sen­ta­ti­on of the exter­nal nose with exter­nal nasal cues, its bone and car­ti­lagin­ous com­pon­ents, and the ante­rior nasal ope­ning Some peop­le opt for cos­me­tic sur­ge­ry (cal­led rhi­no­plas­ty) to chan­ge the appearan­ce of their nose. Nasal pier­cings, such as in the nos­tril, sep­t­um or bridge, are also com­mon. In some Asi­an coun­tries, such as Chi­na, Japan, South Korea, Malay­sia, Thai­land and Ban­gla­desh, rhi­no­plas­ty is often per­for­med to pro­du­ce a more deve­lo­ped nasal bridge or “high nose”. [88] Simi­lar­ly, “DIY nose lifts” have beco­me popu­lar in the form of reus­able cos­me­tics and are sold in many Asi­an coun­tries such as Chi­na, Japan, South Korea, Tai­wan, Sri Lan­ka and Thai­land. [89] [90] [91] A rai­sed nose was a com­mon ide­al of beau­ty in many Asi­an cul­tures, dating back to the beau­ty ide­als of anci­ent Chi­na and India. [92] [93] The nose sup­ports many bodi­ly func­tions, ran­ging from the vital pro­cess of breat­hing to impro­ving fla­vor. The nasal cavi­ty is divi­ded by the nasal sep­t­um into two cavi­ties, each acces­si­ble through an exter­nal nos­tril. [13] [1] The divi­si­on into two cavi­ties allows the nasal cycle to func­tion, which slows down the pro­cess of con­di­tio­ning the inha­led air.

[21] At the back of the nasal cavi­ty, the­re are two ope­nings, cal­led choa­ne (also pos­te­rior nos­trils), that give access to the nasopha­rynx and the rest of the air­ways. [1] Blood sup­ply to the nose is through the bran­ches of the eye, the maxil­la­ry and facial arte­ries – bran­ches of the caro­tid arte­ries. The bran­ches of the­se arte­ries ana­s­to­mo­se to the ple­xu­s­es in and under the nasal muco­sa. [3] In the sep­t­um area, the Kies­sel­bach ple­xus is a com­mon site of nose­bleeds. The nose allows you to make per­fu­m­es of what is hap­pe­ning in the world around you. Just as your eyes give you infor­ma­ti­on through sight and your ears help you hear, you can use your nose to find out what‘s going on by smell. It does this with the help of many parts hid­den deep in your nasal cavi­ty and head. The nasal sep­t­um, the flat car­ti­la­ge pla­te in the midd­le nose, may be dama­ged and pushed left or right, or the nose may beco­me crooked.

This con­di­ti­on is cal­led a nasal sep­t­um. A devi­ant sep­t­um can cau­se breat­hing pro­blems and dis­com­fort becau­se one or both nasal cham­bers are smal­ler than they should be. Some­ti­mes a devi­ant sep­t­um is cor­rec­ted by sur­ge­ry. The bone struc­tu­re of the nose is pro­vi­ded by the upper jaw, fron­tal bone and a num­ber of smal­ler bones. [3] Fur­ther down the nose are even smal­ler hairs cal­led cilia (pro­noun­ced: SILL-ee-uh), which you can only see with a micro­scope. The cilia move back and forth to move mucus from the sinu­ses and back of the nose. Cilia can also be found lining the air­ways, whe­re they help move mucus out of the lungs. Miquel Hernán­dez of the Depart­ment of Ani­mal Bio­lo­gy at the Uni­ver­si­ty of Bar­ce­lo­na said that the “high and nar­row nose of Eski­mos and Nean­derthals” is an “adap­t­ati­on to a cold and dry envi­ron­ment” becau­se it hel­ps to warm and humi­di­fy the air and “reco­ver heat and mois­tu­re from the exha­led air”. [102] The nose is the main olfac­to­ry organ and acts as an important respi­ra­to­ry organ in the body.

In addi­ti­on, it is also invol­ved in func­tions such as tas­ting. Nor­mal deve­lo­p­ment is cru­cial becau­se the new­born brea­thes through the nose for the first six weeks and any nasal con­ges­ti­on requi­res emer­gen­cy tre­at­ment to eli­mi­na­te it. [51] The shape of the nose varies great­ly due to dif­fe­ren­ces in the shapes of the nasal bone and the for­ma­ti­on of the bridge of the nose. Some nose shapes have been clas­si­fied for sur­ge­ry by Eden War­wick in naso­lo­gy. The­se were then incor­po­ra­ted into a nasal index by Paul Topi­nard. Anthro­po­metric stu­dies have con­tri­bu­t­ed signi­fi­cant­ly to cra­nio­facial sur­ge­ry, and nasal index is a reco­gni­zed anthro­po­metric index used in nasal sur­ge­ry. [31] A lar­ge quan­ti­ty of coo­kies comes out of the oven. Your gym bag fil­led with dir­ty clothes. How do you smell the­se smells and thousands more? It‘s your nose, of cour­se. The two ope­nings in nasal care are cal­led nos­trils or neck. They lead to two nasal cavi­ties sepa­ra­ted by the sep­t­um, a wall of cartilage.

Insi­de the face is a com­plex sys­tem of ducts and air pockets cal­led sinu­ses. The sinus cavi­ties extend to the back of the skull, just abo­ve the oral cavi­ty, into the cheek­bones and bet­ween the eyes and eye­brows. All the­se are­as are at least par­ti­al­ly respon­si­ble for breat­hing, smell, tas­te and defen­se of the immu­ne sys­tem. Things com­ing out of the nose can be a pro­blem. A run­ny nose is cau­sed by the pro­duc­tion of mucus in the nose. Mucus pro­duc­tion can be trig­ge­red by anything that irri­ta­tes or infla­mes the nose, such as all­er­gies, a cold, flu or dust, accord­ing to the Mayo Cli­nic. Bloo­dy noses occur when the tiny blood ves­sels in the nose break due to dry air, irri­t­ants, che­mi­cals, bumps in the nose, and various other fac­tors. The human nose is the pro­tru­ding part of the face.

It car­ri­es the nos­trils and is the first organ of the respi­ra­to­ry tract. It is also the main organ of the olfac­to­ry sys­tem. The shape of the nose is deter­mi­ned by the nasal bones and nasal car­ti­la­ge, inclu­ding the nasal sep­t­um, which sepa­ra­tes the nos­trils and divi­des the nasal cavi­ty into two parts. On average, the nose of a male is lar­ger than that of a fema­le. To learn more about the struc­tu­re and func­tion of the nose, visit the BYJU web­site or down­load the BYJU app for ano­t­her refe­rence. It has been sug­gested that varia­ti­ons in nose shape may have been adap­ted to regio­nal dif­fe­ren­ces in tem­pe­ra­tu­re and humi­di­ty, alt­hough they may also have been cau­sed by other fac­tors such as sexu­al selec­tion. [58] The­se recep­tors are very small – the­re are about 10 mil­li­on in the nose! The­re are hund­reds of dif­fe­rent olfac­to­ry recep­tors, each with the abi­li­ty to per­cei­ve cer­tain odo­rous mole­cu­les. Rese­arch has shown that an odor can sti­mu­la­te dif­fe­rent types of recep­tors. The brain inter­prets the com­bi­na­ti­on of recep­tors to reco­gni­ze one of some 10,000 dif­fe­rent smells.