Natural law first appeared in ancient Greek philosophy and was mentioned by the Roman philosopher Cicero. It was later mentioned in the Bible, and then developed in the Middle Ages by Catholic philosophers such as Albert the Great and his pupil Thomas Aquinas. During the Enlightenment, the concept of natural laws was used to challenge the divine right of kings and became an alternative justification for establishing a social contract, positive law, and government – and therefore legal rights – in the form of classical republicanism. Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to question the legitimacy of all these institutions. The idea of human rights is also closely linked to that of natural rights: some recognize no difference between the two and consider them synonymous, while others choose to keep the terms separate to avoid association with certain characteristics traditionally associated with natural rights.  In particular, natural rights are considered to be beyond the power of a government or international body to deny them. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 is an important legal instrument that enshrines a concept of natural rights in non-binding international law. Natural rights have traditionally been considered exclusively negative rights, while human rights also include positive rights.  Even in a conception of human rights in natural law, the two terms may not be synonymous. The difference between natural and legal rights is that one is codified by law, while the other is considered universal and morally granted to all persons at birth.
Government agencies impose legal rights, also known as civil rights, to settle criminal and civil cases. Natural rights and legal rights are often combined when laws are written; Natural rights, such as the right to due process, are protected by law so that the natural right to liberty is not arbitrarily withdrawn. Many documents now repeat the phrase used in the United States Declaration of Independence. The preamble to the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that rights are inalienable: “Recognition of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” Section 1, § 1 of the California Constitution recognizes inalienable rights and states some (not all) of those rights such as “the defense of life and liberty, the acquisition, possession, and protection of property, and the pursuit and attainment of security, happiness, and privacy.” However, there is still much controversy about which “rights” are really natural rights and which are not, and the concept of natural or inalienable rights is still controversial for some. The idea that all human beings are born equal and have equal natural rights that can be recognized dates back to the beginnings of human civilization, is rooted in history, and is linked to individual struggles against injustice. Although the term “human rights” is new, the idea that a person has certain fundamental and inalienable rights against a sovereign state goes back to the concepts of natural law and natural rights. Different philosophers have drawn up different lists of rights that they consider natural. Proponents of natural rights, especially Hesselberg and Rothbard, responded that reason can be used to separate truly axiomatic rights from supposed rights, arguing that any principle that must be refuted is an axiom. Critics have pointed to the lack of agreement among supporters as evidence for the claim that the idea of natural rights is merely a political tool. The term “alienate” comes from the field of property law. It refers to the act of transferring something.
In general, we constantly sell property rights by selling or giving them away. Then it turned out that it made a significant difference if slavery was said to be wrong because every human being has the natural right to own his own body, or because every human being has a natural right to freely determine his destiny. The first type of right was alienable: Locke carefully deduced slavery from capture to war, a man losing his job to the conqueror who could legitimately have killed him; and so Dred Scott was sentenced forever for giving up his freedom. But the second type of right, what Price called “that power of self-determination possessed by all actors as such,” was inalienable as long as man remained human. Like the search by the spirit for religious truth from which it flowed, self-determination was not a property claim that could be both acquired and abandoned, but an inseparable aspect of human activity.  Follow us on Instagram and subscribe to our YouTube channel for more interesting legal content. Moral rights are based on the principles of religion, history and secularism. God‘s natural rights are defined by religious beliefs emanating from God or another supreme being. They are codified in the Bible, Torah and other religious texts.
The Ten Commandments are examples of how certain natural rights have been enshrined in law to protect life and liberty. These rights are deemed inalienable. Natural rights are rights conferred on all human beings by nature or God that no government or individual can deny or limit. “Natural law” is often used to describe how people are granted natural rights. The concept of a natural law proving the existence of certain natural rights was originally introduced into ancient Greek philosophy. Later it was mentioned in the Bible and continued to develop in the Middle Ages. In the Enlightenment, natural rights were used to counter absolutism or the divine rights of kings. The contemporary concept of natural rights evolved from ancient and medieval theories of natural law, which held that individuals, as creatures of nature and God, should live their lives and structure their societies in accordance with natural or divine norms and commandments. Natural law concepts should emphasize that individuals, as natural beings, have rights that cannot be violated by anyone or by a community, especially in the 17th century. Natural law establishes natural human morality, rights, values, and duties through the actions and behaviors of these individuals.
On the other hand, human law, often known as legal law, establishes true human morality, rights, values and duties through man-made systems and rules. Natural rights and legal rights are the two basic types of rights.  Everyone has the right to choose and relate to his religion. The writings of Thomas Aquinas and the United States Bill of Rights recognize the right to religion. The right to know God was written by Thomas Aquinas, and the Bill of Rights affirms that Americans have freedom of religion without government interference. Human rights: The concept of human rights is enshrined in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. These are internationally agreed standards that some countries protect through their laws and others do not.